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    Trail-Making Test – Langensteinbach Version
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    Please note that this product can only be administrated if you have an online VTS Standard Subscription or a local VTS version from 8.0.00 or higher.

    Field of Application+

    NEURO
    TRAFFIC
    SPORT
    HR
    Detailed Description+

    Assesses general neuropsychological functions such as visuomotor processing speed and cognitive flexibility.
    The Trail-Making Test is widely used internationally to investigate brain functioning. It consists of two parts. TMT-A is primarily a measure of processing speed, while TMT-B assesses higher cognitive abilities such as mental flexibility. In the TMT-L version a weakness in the original version has been corrected by equalizing the length of the pathways in the two parts of the test. In addition, the points to be highlighted lie within a particular radius and within an angle of vision that permits foveal recognition. This means that performance in part B is not affected by greater visual search efforts and that working times can be more validly compared with each other. The test’s usefulness as a clinical test of visuomotor processing speed and cognitive flexibility has been demonstrated for both neurological and psychiatric disorders. The test has been found to be sensitive to neurocognitive deficits, such as those that occur as a result of brain injuries and neurological disorders. It is therefore used for screening, for assessing neuropsychological deficits and for preparing therapeutic interventions.

    Test forms+

    S1: Parallel form M1 – Worked with mouse
    S2: Parallel form M2 – Worked with mouse
    S3: Parallel form M3 – Worked with mouse
    S11: Parallel form T1 – Worked with touch-screen
    S12: Parallel form T2 – Worked with touch-screen
    S13: Parallel form T3 – Worked with touch-screen
     

    Task+

    The test consists of two parts. In part A the numbers 1 to 25 appear on the screen in an apparently random arrangement. The respondent must tap or click on them in sequential order as quickly as possible, either tapping with the forefinger of the dominant hand or clicking with the mouse. Part B uses the numbers 1 to 13 and the letters A to L. These must be tapped or clicked alternately and in ascending order as quickly as possible,

    Dimensions+

    Cognitive abilities

    Executive functions

    Processing speed

    Languages+

    Hungarian

    Turkish

    Dutch

    English (USA)

    French

    Italian

    Portuguese

    Spanish

    German

    Polish

    Russian

    Chinese

    Czech

    Hindi

    Slovene

    Duration+

    approx. 2 minutes if both subtests are presented

    Age+

    Norms for ages 14+.

    Test administration+

    Controlled Mode

    Proctored Mode


    Scoring+

    The following main variables are scored:

    • Working time – Part A: Measure of cognitive processing speed.
    • Working time – Part B: Measure of cognitive flexibility.

    The additional variables Difference B-A and Quotient B/A enable the individual’s cognitive performances to be compared with each other in a more nuanced assessment.

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    Products specifications
    LanguagesChinese
    LanguagesCzech
    LanguagesDutch
    LanguagesEnglish (USA)
    LanguagesFrench
    LanguagesGerman
    LanguagesHindi
    LanguagesHungarian
    LanguagesItalian
    LanguagesPolish
    LanguagesPortuguese
    LanguagesRussian
    LanguagesSlovene
    LanguagesSpanish
    LanguagesTurkish
    Test informationwide norm spectrum <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="In tests with a wide norm spectrum the norms cover a wide age range (wider than ages 16-84), or multiple norm samples (at least two) are available."></i>
    Test informationmodular <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="A test is described as modular if the user can decide which scales or subtests are to be presented. "></i>
    Test informationparallel test form <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="In tests with parallel forms at least one test form is available with content that is entirely equivalent to another form of the test. However, the parallel test forms use different item material."></i>
    Test informationlanguage-free item material <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="A test that uses language-free item material is one that can be worked by a respondent with no linguistic knowledge, provided that the instructions have been understood (for example with support from the test administrator)."></i>
    Test informationlinks to CogniPlus <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="For tests that are linked to CogniPlus there is a CogniPlus training program specifically designed to train the ability measured by the test."></i>
    Test informationhigh level of test security <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="A test has a high level of test security if steps have been taken to prevent disclosure of the answers or answer scheme. Examples of such steps include prevention of unsupervised online testing, the provision of parallel test forms and the use of objective personality tests and adaptive tests."></i>
    DimensionsCognitive abilities
    DimensionsExecutive functions
    DimensionsProcessing speed
    Test typeSpecial Ability Tests