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Tower of London – Freiburg version
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Field of Application+

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Detailed Description+

Assesses planning ability in psychiatric and neurological patients and healthy individuals.
The test is used where impairment of the executive functions in general and planning ability in particular is suspected. However, the Tower of London can also be used as an ability test with healthy respondents. Planning ability refers here to the ability to plan ahead in a given context on the basis of clear rules, thereby arriving at the correct solution in the optimum way. Testing this ability is recommended in various neurological and psychiatric disorders in which impairment of planning ability is to be expected. This test is used in clinical neuropsychology to evaluate planning ability in detail; it provides a precise assessment that can be used as a basis for therapeutic intervention.

Test forms+

S1: Standard form A S2: Standard form B S3: Standard form C S11: Short form A
S12: Short form A
S13: Short form C

Task+

An image depicts a three-dimensional wooden model with three rods on which three balls of different colors are placed. These need to be moved into various arrangements, depending on the task. The left rod holds three balls, the middle rod takes two and the right rod has room for one. In each task the target state is always shown in the upper part of the screen and the starting state in the lower part. To solve the problem the respondent must change the starting state into the target state. The minimum number of moves required to achieve this is shown to the left of the starting state. Various rules must be observed, such as the rule that only one ball can be moved at a time.

Dimensions+

Cognitive abilities

Executive functions

Languages+

Hungarian

Turkish

Dutch

English (USA)

French

Italian

Portuguese

Spanish

German

Polish

Russian

Chinese

Czech

Hindi

Slovene

Duration+

approx. 11-16 minutes, depending on test form

Age+

Norms for ages 13+.

Test administration+

Controlled Mode


Scoring+

The following main variable is scored:

Planning ability: Measure of the ability to plan ahead in a given context on the basis of clear rules, thereby arriving at the correct solution in the optimum way. Details are reported of error types, such as systematic rule infringements or changes of mind while working the items, and of planning and execution times.

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Products specifications
LanguagesChinese
LanguagesCzech
LanguagesDutch
LanguagesEnglish (USA)
LanguagesFrench
LanguagesGerman
LanguagesHindi
LanguagesHungarian
LanguagesItalian
LanguagesPolish
LanguagesPortuguese
LanguagesRussian
LanguagesSlovene
LanguagesSpanish
LanguagesTurkish
Test informationwide norm spectrum <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="In tests with a wide norm spectrum the norms cover a wide age range (wider than ages 16-84), or multiple norm samples (at least two) are available."></i>
Test informationparallel test form <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="In tests with parallel forms at least one test form is available with content that is entirely equivalent to another form of the test. However, the parallel test forms use different item material."></i>
Test informationlanguage-free item material <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="A test that uses language-free item material is one that can be worked by a respondent with no linguistic knowledge, provided that the instructions have been understood (for example with support from the test administrator)."></i>
Test informationconforms to the Rasch-model <i class="fas fa-info-circle tooltips test-info" data-container="body" data-placement="top" data-toggle="tooltip" title="For a test that conforms to the Rasch model the validity of the Rasch model or a comparable probabilistic test theory model has been proved. This means that all the test's item groups have been proved to measure one dimension and to be fair for various sociodemographic groups (such as different age groups)."></i>
DimensionsCognitive abilities
DimensionsExecutive functions
Test typeSpecial Ability Tests